Archive for Resource Centers

Tables, Worksheets and Checklists

  1. Control Chart Factors
  2. Control Chart Formulas
  3. Process Capability Formulas
  4. Process Capability Process Levels
  5. Set-Up Reduction Checklist
  6. Team Start-Up Worksheet
  7. Comparative Analysis Worksheet
  8. Common Flowcharting Methods
  9. Product Family Matrix
  10. FMEA Team Start-Up Worksheet
  11. Five Why's Worksheet
  12. Time Study Worksheet
  13. Timeline Format
  14. 8D Worksheet
  15. Design FMEA Scope Worksheet
  16. DMAIC Worksheet
  17. FMEA Analysis Worksheet
  18. Lean Manufacturing Project Summary
  19. Meeting Minutes and Planner Worksheet
  20. Problem Statement Worksheet
  21. Process FMEA Scope Worksheet
  22. Project Priority Index Worksheet
  23. Project Review Checklist
  24. Value Stream Mapping Symbols
  25. Work Cell Processing Activities and Details Checklist
  26. Work Cell Workflow and Layout Target and Progress Report Form

RCA Forms and Checklists

Here are some forms and checklists that are helpful when trying to get to the root cause of a problem.

RCA Tools and Tips

In many ways, Root Cause Analysis parallels other problem-solving techniques.  However, there are some tools and techniques that are especially helpful when trying to get to the root cause of a long-existing problem.  Here are some of them.

SPC Formulas, Tables and Worksheets

Risk-Based Thinking Step 5

Control Risks

If measures to control risks or protect new opportunities are not taken, threats that have thought to be mitigated may once again occur and opportunities that have led to improvements may degrade. Mechanisms to stabilize processes and hold gains made are necessary; while there are many other forms of control mechanisms, these eight provide a solid starting point.

  • Embrace Standard Work
  • Update Control Plans
  • (Revisit) Training
  • Conduct Internal Audits
  • Use GR&Rs (Gage Repeatability & Reproducibility Studies)
  • Deploy TPM (Total Predictive Maintenance)
  • Track First Time Quality
  • Evaluate Customer Satisfaction

Risk-Based Thinking Step 4

Mitigation or Capitalization

Once risk potentials have been identified, analyzed and evaluated, action can be planned and taken to mitigate threats that constitute unreasonable risks as well as to capitalize on the opportunities that warrant action.

Approaches to Mitigate Threats

  • Risk Elimination: Prevent the potential of risk.
  • Risk Reduction: Minimize the impact or lower the likelihood of risk.
  • Risk Avoidance: Stop or curtail the planned activity to avoid risk.
  • Risk Assignment: Share (or transfer) the risk by outsourcing or insuring the activity.
  • Risk Acceptance: Don’t mitigate the risk, accept it.

(While we list five options, only Elimination and Reduction can be considered true mitigation options. While avoidance may seem like a “safe” option, ending the related activity is often not a viable option.  And assignment or acceptance options impart a false sense of risk mitigation unless the potential risks are low. This course focuses on Risk Elimination and Risk Reduction, not the other three options.)

Approaches to Capitalize on Opportunities

Most opportunities will be customer-focused. “Categories” of opportunities include:

  • Optimize products/processes: Can the product/process be made more robust?
  • Revamp underperforming assets: Have customer needs changed?
  • Enter new markets: Is there an opening for existing products/processes in new markets?
  • Introduce new products: Is there a market opening for a new product/process or a product line extension?

Risk-Based Thinking Step 3

Evaluate and Prioritize Risks

Use the Likelihood and Impact ratings in the Evaluate and Prioritize phase.  Categorize risks into broad High, Moderate and Low threat or opportunity categories.

  • All High-Risk Indexes should be slated for an action plan.
  • Low Risk Index scenarios don’t warrant action; the potential threat represents an acceptable risk, or the opportunity does not have an adequate return for the time and effort required.

Generally, additional factors should be explored to determine if Moderate Risk Index scenarios should be acted upon.

Moderate Threat Risks:

While the disposition of “High” and “Low” Risk Indexes is fairly straight-forward, dealing with Moderate Risks is not. To determine if moderate downside risks should be mitigated, consider the impact level.

  • If the Impact of the risk receives a rating of “5,” that risk should probably be considered for action even if the Likelihood is low.
  • However, if the impact rating is less than 5 for a threat potential and strong detection controls are in place, mitigation of that specific risk is often not needed. But if detection controls do not exist, it is probably worth considering mitigation solutions as long as they are practical and feasible.
  • Before spending time developing a comprehensive action plan, assess whether the potential threat mitigation solution is practical and feasible. It is practical if it “makes sense” and feasible if it fits within the skill-set and resources of the organization.
  • If a potential solution is not both practical and feasible, it doesn’t make sense to invest time and resources on it.

Moderate Opportunity Risks:

  • Conduct a form of cost-benefit analysis to help determine if the potential opportunity is “worth” the time and resources to take action.
  • If the cost to tackle an opportunity is high and the consequence of not acting on the opportunity is low, it makes sense to pass up that opportunity

Risk-Based Thinking Step 2

Analyze Risk

Analyzing the potential risk (whether a threat or an opportunity) involves assessing both the Likelihood of Occurrence and the Potential Impact.

  • Rate both the Likelihood and the Impact on a relative numerical scale.
  • The greater the likelihood and more severe the impact, the higher the rating.

Risk-based thinking risk index grid

Risk-Based Thinking Step 1

Identify

Potential Threats

When identifying threat potentials, it is helpful to use categories. Consider using these four categories for potential threats:

  • Inherent process risks
  • Risks caused by technological disruptions
  • Risks linked to extreme events of nature
  • Risks from willful or intentional misconduct

Examples of tools that are helpful in identifying threats after an event include:

  • Monitoring escapes
  • Warranty claims
  • Process breakdowns
  • Safety incidents
  • Spills or emissions

However, being proactive and acting before a potential threat occurs can prevent if from occurring. Some tools and techniques for identifying threats before they occur are:

  • Failure Mode and Effects Analysis
  • Fault Tree Analysis
  • Control Charts

Opportunities

Opportunities can be categorized as well:

  • Optimize products/processes
  • Revamp underperforming assets
  • Enter new markets
  • Introduce new products

Identifying opportunities usually involves listening to customers and better understanding the marketplace. Listening to customers helps to:

  • Anticipate customer’s future needs.
  • Question fundamental restrictions to our current product and processes.
  • Anticipate proactive (or defensive) actions of our competitors.

When identified, opportunities help us look at the business in a different light often helping us recognize an opening for a unique product feature or market segment. Techniques that can help identify opportunities include:

  • SWOT Analysis
  • SOAR Analysis

Opportunities tend to proactively “stretch” the organization.

  • Risk Elimination: Prevent the potential of risk.
  • Risk Reduction: Minimize the impact or lower the likelihood of risk.
  • Risk Avoidance: Stop or curtail the planned activity to avoid risk.
  • Risk Assignment: Share (or transfer) the risk by outsourcing or insuring the activity.
  • Risk Acceptance: Don’t mitigate the risk, accept it.

(While we list five options, only Elimination and Reduction can be considered true mitigation options. While avoidance may seem like a “safe” option, ending the related activity is often not a viable option.  And assignment or acceptance options impart a false sense of risk mitigation unless the potential risks are low. This course focuses on Risk Elimination and Risk Reduction, not the other three options.)

Approaches to Capitalize on Opportunities

Most opportunities will be customer-focused. “Categories” of opportunities include:

  • Optimize products/processes: Can the product/process be made more robust?
  • Revamp underperforming assets: Have customer needs changed?
  • Enter new markets: Is there an opening for existing products/processes in new markets?
  • Introduce new products: Is there a market opening for a new product/process or a product line extension?

Risk-Based Thinking Summary Worksheet

Here is an example of a Risk-Based Thinking Summary Worksheet.

Risk-based thinking summary worksheet.

Identify

  • Use a Reference Number to help keep track of risks.
  • The Description summarizes the risk potential.
  • The Type is either a Threat or OPPORTUNITY.
  • The Source is either BEFORE a risk occurs or AFTER it happens.

Analyze

  • The greater the likelihood and more severe the impact, the higher the rating.
  • The likelihood is often rated on either an event-based scale or a time-based scale.
  • The greatest impact may be on quality, finances, safety or the environmental.

Evaluate & Prioritize

  • Calculate the relative RISK INDEX by multiplying the likelihood rating times the impact
  • A RISK INDEX can have a range from a high of 25 to a low of 1. Generally, the higher the RISK INDEX, the greater the potential threat or opportunity.
  • Prioritize risks as a high, moderate or low
  • Evaluate whether the potential solutions considered for mitigating threats are practical & feasible or cost-effective for opportunities.

Mitigate or Capitalize

  • Consider elimination and reduction approaches for threats such as Inherent Process Events, Natural Hazards and Technological Events and Willful or Intentional Misconduct.
  • Potential paths for projects to tackle opportunities include optimizing products/processes, revamping underperforming assets, entering new markets and introducing new products.

Control

  • Use “Control Mechanisms” to make sure measures are in place that track performance to ensure improvements made continue to work as expected.

 

Control Chart Factors

Table of Control Chart Factors

Control Chart Formulas

Control Chart Formulas

Process Capability Formulas

Process Capability Formulas

Process Capability Process Levels

Process Capability Quality Levels

Set-Up Reduction Checklist

The checklist walks the team through ten important questions that must be answered to complete a set-up reduction effort.

Important Reminders:

  • Set-Up Time is the total time from last good piece or part to first good piece or part of the new product.
  • Internal Set-Up Time is the time when the equipment is down because of set-up activities.
  • External Set-Up Time is the time when set-up activities occur while the equipment is making good product.

Team Start-Up Worksheet

Comparative Analysis Worksheet

Comparative Analysis Worksheet

Common Flowcharting Methods

Many flowcharting methodologies are available, for example:

  • Process Flowcharts
  • Functional Flowcharts (a.k.a Swim Lanes)
  • Top-Down Flowcharts
  • Brown-Paper Flows
  • SIPOC Diagrams
  • Value Stream Maps

Process Flowcharts

Process Flowcharts are perhaps the most commonly used flowcharting method. They map workflows by showing the order that activities and decisions occur. Directional arrows indicate the flow paths of the workflow thereby displaying the sequence of steps or activities of the workflow.

Pros of Process Flowcharts: It is the easiest format to map the full details of the workflow and most useful when analyzing a specific function or activity that is part of the workflow.

Cons of Process Flowcharts: They are arguably the most difficult format to read and comprehend as the flowchart string can ramble on and on.


Functional Flowcharts

Functional Flowcharts use a matrix format to identify the function (or person) involved in each step of the flow.

Functional Flowcharts are also known as Deployment Flowcharts or as Swim Lanes as workflows are organized by function into separate (swim) lanes.

Pros of Functional Flowcharts: Identifies dependencies between functional units.

Cons of Functional Flowcharts: Adding adequate detail to fully explore the workflow can be tedious due to the amount of paper or screen space that functional flows require.


Top-Down Flowcharts

Top-Down Flowcharts organize the workflow by major step. The detailed activities (or sub-steps) are flowcharted under the major step.

If the process flow contains many sub-steps, the flowchart can easily be divided into manageable pieces. Each major step can be flowcharted independently of the other major steps. The top-level major steps provide perspective of how the major step and its associated sub-steps fit into the overall workflow.

Pros of Top-Down Flowcharts: Easy to follow as the major steps across the top represent distinct steps in the overall flow.

Cons of Top-Down Flowcharts: Not easy to indicate activities done in series and the level of detail required to highlight rework loops is not always included.


Brown-Paper Flows

A Brown-Paper Flow is constructed by mounting all artifacts (forms, checklist, computer screens, …) associated with a process on a length of brown Kraft paper.

This technique is especially useful for transactional processes as it will point out what paperwork is redundant and where mistakes in the paperwork might be made.

Pros of Brown-Paper Flows: Brown-Paper Flows can be visual catalysts for improvement. Once the flow is made visible, ideas to simplify the process, put an end to rework loops and reduce hand-offs may "leap" off of the paper. Solutions for redundant or convoluted flow paths may become evident, process steps that once had good reasons to exist but have long since outlived their usefulness may be revealed and tasks that are done in series that would be more effective if done in parallel may become obvious.

Cons of Brown-Paper Flows: Are most effective using actual artifacts and physically placing them onto the brown paper and therefore are best done in person.


SIPOC Diagrams

With a SIPOC Diagram, the bounds and elements of a process are defined in terms of five components. Those components are: the Suppliers, Inputs to the process, the Process itself, the Output of the process, and the Customers of that process, hence the acronym SIPOC.

Pros of a SIPOC Diagram: Helps focus the process analysis on customers and their requirements and provides a useful starting point for Value Stream Maps.

Cons of a SIPOC Diagram: Does not map workflows at a detailed level.


Value Stream Maps

A value stream is another term for a process that has inputs, performs work on those inputs, and generates an output that has added-value. The basic premise of a value stream is that value is added as goods or services stream through the process. Unfortunately, for most value streams, some actions, tasks and activities do not add-value (at least from the customer's perspective.)

A Current State Map establishes a baseline "warts" and all. Current State Maps help everyone understand how the value stream currently flows.

A Future State Map envisions the "to-be" condition where the plan is to ensure that all workflow elements add-value.

Pros of Value Stream Maps: Provides a comprehensive look at the process in terms of inputs and outputs.

Cons of Value Stream Maps: Can be time consuming to do.

Product Family Matrix

A Product Family Matrix can be used to group products into families. To use the matrix, indicate which process steps are used by each product. Then, look for groupings of common process steps. The groupings are the product families.

The process steps are arranged by flow order with downstream processes last. Downstream steps are those process steps that are closer to the customer. Many times, the major difference between product families is the use of downstream process steps.

With product families, workflow layouts can be configured to accommodate small differences in the workflow by building in detours and planning for the use of portable equipment.

Product families do not have to serve the same market. Think in terms of shared processes, not shared markets.

FMEA Team Start-Up Worksheet

Use this form to establish important ground rules for the FMEA team before starting the actual FMEA.

FMEA Team Start-up Worksheet

Five Why's Worksheet

Example 5-Whys Worksheet

Time Study Worksheet

This worksheet can be used to record the results of time studies. Keep track of transport and wait time; these activities represent waste that should be eliminated as the workflow is converted into cellular operations.

Timeline Format

Example timeline analysis

The timeline is set up in at least 3 sections:

  • First, a (horizontal) time scale.
  • Second, a section for documenting process performance.
  • And third, a section noting process changes.

Use Timeline Analysis:

  • When something might have changed in the process.
  • To compare process performance with changes made in the process.
  • To show changes in customer and supplier processes relative to process performance.

8D Worksheet

 Page 1

Page 2

Page 3

Design FMEA Scope Worksheet

Use this form to clarify and document the scope of your Design FMEA.

DMAIC Worksheet

Page 1

Page 2

Page 3

FMEA Analysis Worksheet

Because this form is so wide, we have split it into two graphics.

FMEA Analysis Worksheet

Left side of the FMEA Analysis Worksheet.

FMEA Analysis Worksheet

Right side of the FMEA Analysis Worksheet.

Lean Manufacturing Project Summary

Use this form as an overall summary of a lean manufacturing implementation project.

This form is compliments of Jeff Hastie, Bose Corporation.

Meeting Minutes and Planner Worksheet

Problem Statement Worksheet

8-D Problem Statement Worksheet

Process FMEA Scope Worksheet

Use this form to clarify and document the scope of your Process FMEA.

Project Priority Index Worksheet

8-D Project Priority Worksheet

Project Review Checklist

Project Review Checklist

Value Stream Mapping Symbols

Work Cell Processing Activities and Details Checklist

These checklists can be used as prompts to collect data needed to plan out work cell details.

Work Cell Workflow and Layout Target and Progress Report Form

Use this form to help keep track of progress as several iterations of process workflows and layouts are considered.

Control Chart Formulas

Control Chart Formulas

Control Chart Factors

Table of Control Chart Factors

Process Capability Formulas

Process Capability Formulas

Process Capability Process Levels

Process Capability Quality Levels