Control Chart Factors

Table of Control Chart Factors

Control Chart Formulas

Control Chart Formulas

Process Capability Formulas

Process Capability Formulas

Process Capability Process Levels

Process Capability Quality Levels

Set-Up Reduction Checklist

The checklist walks the team through ten important questions that must be answered to complete a set-up reduction effort.

Important Reminders:

  • Set-Up Time is the total time from last good piece or part to first good piece or part of the new product.
  • Internal Set-Up Time is the time when the equipment is down because of set-up activities.
  • External Set-Up Time is the time when set-up activities occur while the equipment is making good product.

Team Start-Up Worksheet

Comparative Analysis Worksheet

Comparative Analysis Worksheet

Common Flowcharting Methods

Many flowcharting methodologies are available, for example:

  • Process Flowcharts
  • Functional Flowcharts (a.k.a Swim Lanes)
  • Top-Down Flowcharts
  • Brown-Paper Flows
  • SIPOC Diagrams
  • Value Stream Maps

Process Flowcharts

Process Flowcharts are perhaps the most commonly used flowcharting method. They map workflows by showing the order that activities and decisions occur. Directional arrows indicate the flow paths of the workflow thereby displaying the sequence of steps or activities of the workflow.

Pros of Process Flowcharts: It is the easiest format to map the full details of the workflow and most useful when analyzing a specific function or activity that is part of the workflow.

Cons of Process Flowcharts: They are arguably the most difficult format to read and comprehend as the flowchart string can ramble on and on.

Functional Flowcharts

Functional Flowcharts use a matrix format to identify the function (or person) involved in each step of the flow.

Functional Flowcharts are also known as Deployment Flowcharts or as Swim Lanes as workflows are organized by function into separate (swim) lanes.

Pros of Functional Flowcharts: Identifies dependencies between functional units.

Cons of Functional Flowcharts: Adding adequate detail to fully explore the workflow can be tedious due to the amount of paper or screen space that functional flows require.

Top-Down Flowcharts

Top-Down Flowcharts organize the workflow by major step. The detailed activities (or sub-steps) are flowcharted under the major step.

If the process flow contains many sub-steps, the flowchart can easily be divided into manageable pieces. Each major step can be flowcharted independently of the other major steps. The top-level major steps provide perspective of how the major step and its associated sub-steps fit into the overall workflow.

Pros of Top-Down Flowcharts: Easy to follow as the major steps across the top represent distinct steps in the overall flow.

Cons of Top-Down Flowcharts: Not easy to indicate activities done in series and the level of detail required to highlight rework loops is not always included.

Brown-Paper Flows

A Brown-Paper Flow is constructed by mounting all artifacts (forms, checklist, computer screens, …) associated with a process on a length of brown Kraft paper.

This technique is especially useful for transactional processes as it will point out what paperwork is redundant and where mistakes in the paperwork might be made.

Pros of Brown-Paper Flows: Brown-Paper Flows can be visual catalysts for improvement. Once the flow is made visible, ideas to simplify the process, put an end to rework loops and reduce hand-offs may "leap" off of the paper. Solutions for redundant or convoluted flow paths may become evident, process steps that once had good reasons to exist but have long since outlived their usefulness may be revealed and tasks that are done in series that would be more effective if done in parallel may become obvious.

Cons of Brown-Paper Flows: Are most effective using actual artifacts and physically placing them onto the brown paper and therefore are best done in person.

SIPOC Diagrams

With a SIPOC Diagram, the bounds and elements of a process are defined in terms of five components. Those components are: the Suppliers, Inputs to the process, the Process itself, the Output of the process, and the Customers of that process, hence the acronym SIPOC.

Pros of a SIPOC Diagram: Helps focus the process analysis on customers and their requirements and provides a useful starting point for Value Stream Maps.

Cons of a SIPOC Diagram: Does not map workflows at a detailed level.

Value Stream Maps

A value stream is another term for a process that has inputs, performs work on those inputs, and generates an output that has added-value. The basic premise of a value stream is that value is added as goods or services stream through the process. Unfortunately, for most value streams, some actions, tasks and activities do not add-value (at least from the customer's perspective.)

A Current State Map establishes a baseline "warts" and all. Current State Maps help everyone understand how the value stream currently flows.

A Future State Map envisions the "to-be" condition where the plan is to ensure that all workflow elements add-value.

Pros of Value Stream Maps: Provides a comprehensive look at the process in terms of inputs and outputs.

Cons of Value Stream Maps: Can be time consuming to do.

Product Family Matrix

A Product Family Matrix can be used to group products into families. To use the matrix, indicate which process steps are used by each product. Then, look for groupings of common process steps. The groupings are the product families.

The process steps are arranged by flow order with downstream processes last. Downstream steps are those process steps that are closer to the customer. Many times, the major difference between product families is the use of downstream process steps.

With product families, workflow layouts can be configured to accommodate small differences in the workflow by building in detours and planning for the use of portable equipment.

Product families do not have to serve the same market. Think in terms of shared processes, not shared markets.

FMEA Team Start-Up Worksheet

Use this form to establish important ground rules for the FMEA team before starting the actual FMEA.

FMEA Team Start-up Worksheet

Five Why's Worksheet

Example 5-Whys Worksheet

Time Study Worksheet

This worksheet can be used to record the results of time studies. Keep track of transport and wait time; these activities represent waste that should be eliminated as the workflow is converted into cellular operations.

Timeline Format

Example timeline analysis

The timeline is set up in at least 3 sections:

  • First, a (horizontal) time scale.
  • Second, a section for documenting process performance.
  • And third, a section noting process changes.

Use Timeline Analysis:

  • When something might have changed in the process.
  • To compare process performance with changes made in the process.
  • To show changes in customer and supplier processes relative to process performance.

8D Worksheet

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Design FMEA Scope Worksheet

Use this form to clarify and document the scope of your Design FMEA.

DMAIC Worksheet

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FMEA Analysis Worksheet

Because this form is so wide, we have split it into two graphics.

FMEA Analysis Worksheet

Left side of the FMEA Analysis Worksheet.

FMEA Analysis Worksheet

Right side of the FMEA Analysis Worksheet.

Lean Manufacturing Project Summary

Use this form as an overall summary of a lean manufacturing implementation project.

This form is compliments of Jeff Hastie, Bose Corporation.

Meeting Minutes and Planner Worksheet

Problem Statement Worksheet

8-D Problem Statement Worksheet

Process FMEA Scope Worksheet

Use this form to clarify and document the scope of your Process FMEA.

Project Priority Index Worksheet

8-D Project Priority Worksheet

Project Review Checklist

Project Review Checklist

Value Stream Mapping Symbols

Work Cell Processing Activities and Details Checklist

These checklists can be used as prompts to collect data needed to plan out work cell details.

Work Cell Workflow and Layout Target and Progress Report Form

Use this form to help keep track of progress as several iterations of process workflows and layouts are considered.